An Evaluation of the Physicochemical Characteristics of the Hand-Dug Shallow Water Wells in Awka Metropolis, Anambra State, Nigeria

Onuorah Samuel, Elesia Rosemary Okoye Patrice, Odibo Frederick


The physical, chemical and biological qualities of water constitute groundwater quality. Water of poor physicochemical quality may have adverse effects on human health and the economy. The physicochemical evaluation of fifteen hand-dug shallow water wells in Awka metropolis was carried out during the dry and wet seasons to determine their suitability for drinking using standard analytical methods. Results showed The temperature was 27-280C; pH, 4.1-5.5; electrical conductivity, 10-910 us/cm; total dissolved solids, 0.01-0.79mg/l; total suspended solids, 0.02-0.35mg/l; total solids, 0.08-0.87mg/l; wells depth, 10-14m; total acidity, 1.5-61.3mg/l; total alkalinity, 4-34 mg/l; total hardness, 16-68mg/l; total chloride, 11.62-320.69mg/l; calcium hardness, 1.40-29.46mg/l; magnesium hardness, 0.00-11.27mg/l; sulphate, 0.000-0.007mg/l; iron, 0.02-029mg/l; lead, 0.00-0.09mg/l; cadmium, 0.01-0.33mg/l and arsenic, 0.01-0.10mg/l during the dry season. During the wet season, the temperature was 28-290C; pH, 5.0-7.3; total dissolved solids, 0.09-19.71mg/l; total suspended solids, 0.04-1.62mg/l; total solids, 0.31-20.09mg/l; wells depth 5-10m; electrical conductivity, 15-1042us/cm; total acidity, 31.3-86.3mg/l; total alkalinity, 12-106mg/l; total hardness, 37-320mg/l; total chloride, 52.84-763.47mg/l; calcium hardness, 4.81-52.91mg/l; magnesium hardness, 8.65-70.60mg/l; sulphate, 0.000-0.100mg/l; iron, 0.38-6.92mg/l; lead, 3.33-13.33mg/l; cadmium, 2.50-37.50mg/l and arsenic, 3.10-26.51g/l.  Generally, the water from the wells were of poor physicochemical quality and must be treated adequately before use by humans.


Physicochemical, Shallow, Water Wells.

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